What Treatment Options Are Available For Thyroid Cancer?
Having thyroid cancer can be a scary thing to have, but there are a few different things you can do to help you deal with the symptoms. Read on to find out what your options are.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy
During a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid, a thin hollow needle is placed inside the gland and then used to aspirate the cells. The resulting sample is examined by a pathologist. The cells are then classified into benign, nondiagnostic, or malignant.
Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed in a doctor’s office. It involves a special radiologist who is trained in ultrasound. It is also known as an image-guided biopsy.
A syringe is attached to the needle. The syringe holds a liquid that can be applied to the nodule. The syringe may be held in a plastic or metal holder. The syringe may be aspirated several times to collect a sufficient amount of cells. A bandage is applied if necessary.
A patient is placed in a supine position with their neck tipped back. They are then asked not to cough or swallow. The transducer contains a sterile water-soluble gel.
The radiologist then inserts the needle through the skin. The needle is then moved forward and back in the thyroid nodule. It is then withdrawn when an aspirate appears in the hub of the needle.
The ultrasound machine ensures that the needle is on target. It can also provide an ongoing image of the nodule.
Before the FNA biopsy, the patient may be given a local anesthetic. They may also be asked to temporarily stop taking certain medications. This may include aspirin, clopidogrel, or warfarin. The pain associated with the procedure is relatively mild.
A small amount of bruising and swelling may occur after the procedure. This is not uncommon and will dissipate within a few hours. The area may feel sore for a few days. The patient can then resume normal activities.
A thyroid biopsy is a procedure that can be done in a hospital bed, on an examining table in your physician’s office, or during an endoscopy. Patients should discuss any concerns they have before the procedure.
The results of the biopsy are usually returned to the patient within two to three days. In addition to providing information on the diagnosis, a pathology report can explain the treatment plans that will be made.
Radioactive iodine therapy
Using radioactive iodine therapy to treat thyroid cancer is a treatment method that is widely used. It is especially beneficial for patients with toxic nodules and multinodular goiters. It is also effective in reducing the risk of anemia.
The radiation that is used in radioactive iodine therapy destroys the cancer cells in the thyroid. It can be taken in pill form or as a shot. The dosage of the radioactive iodine will be determined based on the results of your blood tests.
Most people will be asked to start a low-iodine diet for a few weeks before having the treatment. This is because iodine is absorbed by normal thyroid cells. Then, it is converted to thyroxine, the thyroid hormone. The iodine can be absorbed by most other cells, but not as much. This leaves the rest of the body relatively unharmed.
Those who have radioactive iodine therapy should drink lots of liquids for a few days after the treatment. During the first two days, the iodine will leave the body through the urine. If you do not have a bowel movement within 24 hours, call your doctor. If you are having trouble, you can take a laxative to help you have a bowel movement.
During the first year after having the treatment, you will need to have blood tests every 1-2 months. In the early months after the treatment, hypothyroidism is the most common side effect. If you have symptoms of hypothyroidism, you should have your thyroid tested.
You will be able to drive your car after the treatment, but you should avoid using public transportation. You may use a private car or have a friend or family member pick you up. In the first two days after treatment, you should not have prolonged close contact with other people.
You should also try to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months after the treatment. Women who are planning to become pregnant should talk to their doctor before having the treatment. They should also use birth control after the treatment.
Aside from the risk of developing hypothyroidism, radioactive iodine therapy can have other side effects. This includes dry mouth, pain in the thyroid, and dry eye.
Surgical treatment for thyroid cancer includes a variety of techniques. It is best to discuss these with your doctor or endocrine surgeon before undergoing surgery.
The main types of surgery include total thyroidectomy, partial thyroidectomy, and robotic-assisted surgeries. A complete thyroidectomy removes the entire gland, preventing the further growth of cancer.
Depending on the type of cancer, the surgery may involve the removal of nearby lymph nodes. Patients are also given blood tests to detect any recurrences of the disease.
If cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the disease may not be cured by surgical resection. Radiation therapy and adjuvant therapies may be used to control symptoms. In advanced cases, new systemic targeted therapies may be necessary.
Postoperative complications are uncommon in experienced hands. However, a significant hematoma in the neck can cause airway compromise and need to be managed promptly.
Other less frequent but serious complications include wound infection and seroma. The patient should be monitored closely during the 6-hour observation period after surgery.
The patient will be given a general anesthetic and will be instructed to give informed consent before the operation. A member of the surgical team will also be present to answer any questions the patient may have.
The surgeon will make a small cut in the neck. The incision is usually made through the lower crease of the neck. The incision is then closed with stitches or glue. A chest X-ray will be taken.
The incision is covered with a dressing. A specialist nurse will then examine the patient. If cancer has returned, the patient may require a second surgery. The patient will be followed up six to eight weeks after the surgery. If the recurrence is found to be minimal, the patient can return home.
Most patients with cancer are treated with surgery. If cancer has spread, external beam radiation or adjuvant therapies may be used to control the symptoms. If the cancer has not spread, the patient may be offered hormone therapy to prevent the growth of cancer.
Thyroid cancer is rarely fatal. Most survivors will need to visit their doctors for check-ups every few months.
During the treatment of thyroid cancer, many people undergo radiation therapy. This can be a beneficial procedure. It can reduce symptoms of advanced thyroid cancer and decrease the likelihood that cancer will return. However, it does have a number of side effects. It is best to discuss these with your physician.
During radiation therapy, various forms of radioactive materials are used. These treatments are designed to destroy cancer cells while sparing healthy tissue. The healthcare team will decide the type and amount of radiation that is necessary. The type of treatment that you receive will depend on the stage of your thyroid cancer.
Radiation therapy for thyroid cancer is a common procedure that is sometimes combined with chemotherapy. These medications are powerful drugs that kill cancerous cells.
Radiation therapy for thyroid cancer may be given in the form of external beam radiation therapy, which is designed to target cancerous cells that are left after surgery. It can also be used to destroy cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
During radiation therapy, you will need to rest during the treatments. This can be very difficult. It is important to eat regularly and drink plenty of fluids. The radiation can also cause dry mouth, hoarseness, and swallowing difficulties. It is also a good idea to avoid becoming pregnant for a year after the treatment.
If you have anaplastic thyroid cancer, your doctor might prescribe chemotherapy. Generally, this is a good option only for people with very aggressive cancer. During the treatment, you will have blood tests and be injected with thyrotropin alfa. This helps the thyroid tissue to absorb the radioactive iodine.
The medication that is given during chemotherapy will have a number of side effects. These can vary depending on the type of drug. You may have constipation, diarrhea, fatigue, or blood pressure problems. Typically, you will not have nausea or vomiting.
You should also ask your healthcare team about other treatments and support services. You may be eligible for clinical trials. Taking part in these trials can help researchers discover new ways to treat cancer.
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