Whether you’re a parent or just looking for more information on poisoning, this article will help you to better understand the different types of poisoning, the causes of poisoning, and what to do if you suspect your child has ingested something that could cause damage to their organs. You’ll also find some useful tips on how to prevent your child from becoming poisoned and some ways to cope with the aftermath of the incident.
Among children aged 0-4 years, poisoning is a major public health concern. It is a major cause of hospital admissions, as well as emergency hospital admissions. It can result in irreparable physical, psychological, and economic damage.
Case-control studies involve matching a case patient to a group of controls. The choice of comparison group is key to a successful study. The number of controls per case-patient will vary but generally will plateau around three or four.
The case-control study of poisoning in young children in Tehran, Iran investigated a large number of risk factors for accidental poisoning in childhood. This study examined the relationship between factors and the prevalence of lead poisoning among young children. It also suggested ways to prevent lead poisoning.
The study was conducted at the Pediatric Poisoning Department of the Loghman hospital in Tehran. The study included 140 consecutive cases of unintentional poisoning. 211 parents of the case children were interviewed. They were asked about their child’s habits and risk factors. They were compared with the habits and risk factors of larger families.
The standard questionnaire included behavioral and demographic characteristics, as well as risk factors for accidental poisoning. The factors were ranked in order of importance.
The multivariable conditional logistic regression model identified addiction in the family as a significant risk factor. It was also noted that the inaccessibility of poisoning products was a significant protective factor.
The results suggest that children who lived abroad for less than 6 months before the blood test was at a significantly higher risk of lead poisoning than US-born children. This finding was supported by the fact that foreign birthplace and time since most recent foreign residence were strongly correlated.
Analyses of poisoning
Several studies have evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of poisoning in young children. This study aims to present the results of a multicentre case-control study that analyzed poisoning among children aged 0-4 years.
The primary goal of this study was to compare the clinical features and outcomes of intentional and accidental poisoning. For this purpose, a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was created to determine the cut-off value of age for the high risk of intentional poison exposure in the ED.
The most common types of pharmaceutical poisons were analgesics, antidepressant drugs, hypnotics, neurologic system agents, and cardiovascular system agents. Detailed categories of pharmaceuticals were analyzed to determine the associations with patient outcomes.
To assess the relative risk of poisoning, a multicentre case-control study was conducted at family practices and hospitals. Two thousand three hundred community control participants and five hundred seventy-six poisoning cases were matched for age, gender, and household environment. The statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package SPSS Windows.
The study included 87 children younger than 18 years of age who presented to the emergency department with pharmaceutical poisoning from 2001 to 2008. The median age of poisoning cases was 4.8 years and the median age of children with ADHD was 16. The mean age of poisoned children was significantly greater in the intentional group. The most common reason for poisoning was intentional, which was more likely to be attributed to girls.
Intentional poisoning was associated with an increased hospital stay. The mean length of stay was longer in this population than in the accidental group. The odds of being poisoned in a family that stored its medicines in an unlocked container were higher in females.
Sources of lead exposure
During childhood, lead exposure can result in many health problems, including learning disabilities, high blood pressure, and behavioral disorders. Some of the most common sources of lead exposure in young children include paint, household plumbing, jewelry, and toys. The most dangerous form of lead exposure is lead dust from lead-based paint.
Lead is a toxic heavy metal that is easily absorbed into the body through the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The amount of lead a child is exposed to depends on the type of exposure and the age of the child. Typically, young children absorb 4-5 times more lead than an adult from a given source.
Lead is usually found in paint chips, but lead-contaminated soil is also a common source of lead exposure in young children. Some of the most common ways for young children to come into contact with lead include chewing jewelry, putting toys into their mouths, and eating food with lead.
Older homes are more susceptible to lead exposure. Homes built before 1978 are likely to have lead-based paint. In addition, the poorest children are more likely to live in areas where lead exposure is higher.
Lead exposure can affect the development of the child’s brain and nervous system. This can cause learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and problems with executive functioning. Symptoms of lead poisoning vary but can range from abdominal pain to headaches, loss of appetite, and clumsiness.
If your child has unexplained symptoms, it is recommended that you consult a physician. The best way to detect lead exposure is to have a blood test. Your local health department or your doctor can perform this test.
Treatment of kerosene poisoning
Among children, kerosene poisoning is a common problem. In addition to the complication of acute intoxication, a child may suffer from pulmonary changes such as pneumonitis or pleural effusion. In some cases, the child may die. In most cases, the child recovers in a few days.
Treatment of kerosene poisoning in young children involves the use of oxygen support. A respiratory analysis such as an arterial blood gas analysis can help determine whether the child requires respiratory support. A complete blood count and electrolyte balance can also be used to assess the child’s health.
A two-year-old girl was brought to a hospital after inhaling a bottle of kerosene oil. The girl was not aware that she had inhaled the poison. The resulting symptoms were fever, cyanosis, and tachypnea. Her parents did not bother to supervise her and did not take her to a doctor.
The incidence of kerosene poisoning in children is much higher than generally realized. In the United States, a study of the ingestion of petroleum products was conducted in 46 hospitals. In the study, a total of 101 children between the ages of 8 months and 2 years were admitted to five hospitals. Only two died.
In a randomized trial, a combination of ampicillin and metronidazole was found to be slightly better than other regimens. However, the role of antibiotics in therapy remains controversial.
Other factors associated with kerosene poisoning in children were the absence of adequate supervision, unsafe storage of household poisons, and a lack of education in the mother. A lack of supervision was the strongest risk factor in the current study.
The study recruited children with kerosene oil poisoning and assessed their medical conditions in general pediatric wards. It was a retrospective study with a sample size of 200. All the cases were caused by unintentional ingestion of kerosene.
Parenting stress after poisoning
Identifying potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in young children may aid in preventing such incidents. However, no study has looked at the full range of possible risks. A case-control study has allowed researchers to explore the relationship between child development and poisoning, a feat that may have been difficult to accomplish otherwise.
The study enrolled three sex-matched control groups, each of which included 36 children of similar ages. The largest group was a matched pair of three children, all under three years of age, and all male. The corresponding controls were six males and six females. A small number of cases were lost after enrolment.
The study also utilized a number of performance measures. A socio-demographic questionnaire included a section devoted to the event, which was a multi-part sequence of questions that covered poisoning symptoms, actions taken upon presentation to the hospital, and the ‘event’ of calling the NSW Poisons Information Centre (PIC).
A multivariate model that included six of these factors produced an OR of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98). The PH model was the most significant of all, but it did not include all variables.
The study used a variety of control groups, including injured and sick controls, as well as playgroups and schoolchildren. It re-defined the best study designs. Several important limitations were encountered. The samples were small, and the results were not definitive. In addition, some combinations of sex and age could not be matched.
The study was conducted at the Sydney Children’s Hospital Emergency Department, which enrolled a variety of healthy and injured control groups. The study aimed to identify the most effective methods for predicting unintentional poisoning in young children. The findings showed that there are several important behavioral and psychological factors that may contribute to the increased risk of such incidents.
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