Periodontal Disease – Causes and Treatments
Regardless of your age, if you’re not taking good care of your teeth, you’re at risk of developing periodontal disease. This disease is a bacterial infection that attacks the gums and bones around your teeth. Fortunately, there are treatments that can help you prevent this from occurring. Read on to learn more about this condition, as well as the types of treatment that are available.
Almost half of Americans aged 30 or older suffer from periodontal disease. This disease is a serious gum infection that affects the tissues around the teeth. It also damages the supporting structures of the teeth. If left untreated, it can cause the loss of teeth.
The main cause of gingivitis is the presence of plaque. This is a thin film of bacteria that builds up in the spaces between the teeth. The plaque re-forms quickly, so it is important to remove it daily.
The bacteria found in plaque cause inflammation in the gums. This causes the gums to bleed easily. The inflammation also makes the gums red. This is a warning sign of gum disease. If left untreated, gingivitis can develop into periodontitis. Periodontitis is more serious than gingivitis. It is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. It is also associated with systemic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, and respiratory disease.
Periodontitis involves the destruction of the bone and supportive connective tissues that support the teeth. Bacteria from the plaque spread to the surrounding tissues and cause infection. The bacteria then attack the bone. This causes deep pockets to form between the teeth and gums. These pockets can be up to one centimeter deep. Food particles can also block the spaces. As the disease advances, the pockets deepen, and the bacteria can spread further into the bone.
The bacteria found in plaque produce toxins that stimulate the chronic inflammatory response. The immune system attacks the tissues, which in turn damages the bone. This leads to gum pockets and more bone loss.
The signs and symptoms of periodontitis are similar to those of gingivitis. They may include gums that are receding, loose teeth, and bad breath. A dentist can determine if your gums have developed periodontitis by performing a thorough examination. They will also take radiographs to check for bone loss. If you have gingivitis, you can stop the progression of the disease by cleaning your teeth regularly.
Periodontitis can be prevented if you take good care of your teeth and gums. You should brush your teeth twice a day and floss regularly. Limit your intake of sugary foods and drinks, as well as tobacco products. Also, limit your consumption of alcohol.
Several pathogenic bacteria are involved in periodontal disease. They cause inflammation in the periodontal tissue, loosening of teeth, and bone loss. Some bacteria produce an acid that binds to the tooth surface, causing the tooth to dissolve. These bacteria are part of a complex bacterial community known as dental plaque.
There are at least 200 to 300 different bacterial species in the mouth. These bacteria interact with the tissue around the tooth to produce a range of compounds. Some of these compounds are acids, while others are internal toxins. They also produce antimicrobial peptides that activate adaptive immune responses. Some of these bacteria produce short-chain fatty acids, which may influence local immune responses.
Some of the bacteria in plaque interact with the tissue around the tooth and elaborate antigens and collagenases. This inflammation can lead to the formation of pockets in the gums, the loosening of teeth, and bone loss. Several immunodiagnostic reagents have been developed to identify specific bacteria.
In the study comparing three detection methods, the traditional culture, DNA probes, and immunological reagents, the DNA probes were the most accurate in detecting P gingivalis. The DNA probes were slightly more accurate than the traditional culture and BANA tests.
A spirochete, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, is involved in localized juvenile periodontitis. A higher prevalence of this bacterial species was found in teeth associated with LJP. Despite being a microaerophile, this bacterial species is generally found at lower rates in healthy sites in the same mouth. However, it has been found to cause bone loss in a rare case of localized juvenile periodontitis.
This bacterial species may be the etiologic agent in LJP. However, it is not known if there are other infections involved in this condition. A more common bacterial species, Bacteroides forsythias, is present at a lower rate in active sites compared to inactive sites. It is present in 8% of the inactive sites and 2.5% of the active sites. However, the difference in the presence of this bacterial species is within the range of error of isolation methods.
Although microbiologic diagnosis is not commonly used in periodontal disease management, it is important for patients and dentists to know which bacteria are involved in their disease. This can help prevent further decay and may even lead to treatment for the disease.
Several studies have investigated the role of gene polymorphisms in the development of periodontal disease. These studies have explored the role of genes in bone metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. However, the relationship between genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease and smoking has not been studied thoroughly.
Smoking is associated with destructive periodontal disease and affects the healing process of periodontal tissues. Smoking influences the levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, in gingival tissues. It also affects the balance of microbiota in the mouth. Moreover, it suppresses the host’s immune response. These effects may accelerate the destruction of periodontal tissues and increase the risk of periodontitis.
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the epithelial tissue of the mouth. It is caused by a bacterial infection or by a combination of bacterial infection and host immuno-inflammatory response. The disease progresses from mild to severe, resulting in the loss of teeth. The primary risk factor in the development of periodontitis is smoking. In the current study, smokers were divided into four subgroups: smokers with no periodontitis, former light smokers, former heavy smokers, and non-smokers.
In the present study, smokers with positive genotypes were at high risk of periodontal disease. The FcgRIIa-H/H131 genotype was associated with chronic periodontitis in smokers. It was not associated with the development of periodontitis in non-smokers. The polymorphic glutathione S-transferase M1 allele was associated with increased periodontitis risk in smokers.
In the study, the presence of genotypes encoding inhibiting receptors was not statistically significant. However, the frequency of genotypes encoding activating receptors was greater in the test group than in the control group. This suggests that the presence of at least four inhibitory receptors may protect against chronic periodontitis.
The presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DS1 gene was present in both the test and control groups. However, the frequency of this gene was 46.0% in the test group and 31.3% in the control group.
The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are a part of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is responsible for regulating the activity of NK cells. They are also a part of the immunoglobulin cluster and are involved in the generation of inflammatory stimuli.
Fortunately, there are a variety of effective treatments available for periodontal disease. Some of these include nonsurgical treatments, such as scaling and root planing. Others include antibiotics. In addition to helping you fight off the bacteria that cause periodontal disease, antibiotics can also be placed directly on the gums to help heal them.
When periodontal disease isn’t treated, the gums and surrounding bone can begin to shrink. This leads to loose teeth and even tooth loss. You should get regular cleanings with your dental hygienist to prevent this.
Periodontal disease is caused by an infection of the gums and surrounding bone. Bacteria form a film on the teeth called plaque. When the plaque builds up, it hardens into tartar. Tartar is difficult to remove at home, so you’ll need professional cleaning. The bacteria in tartar cause damage to the surrounding tissues, and can make cleaning difficult.
Periodontal disease may cause your gums to bleed. This may occur when inflammation occurs, or when the immune system reacts to the infection. If your gums bleed, you may need to see a doctor right away. You may also notice that your breath smells bad. These symptoms could indicate a serious problem, such as mouth cancer.
In addition to the bacteria that cause periodontal disease, there are several other factors that can increase the risk of this condition. Some of these factors include genetics, age, stress, hormonal changes, and other health issues. Others include smoking, certain medications, and a poor diet.
Among the most common treatments for periodontal disease are scaling and root planing, surgery, and antibiotics. However, the best strategy is prevention. You can reduce your risk of developing this disease by brushing and flossing your teeth daily, avoiding tobacco, and avoiding certain medications. You can also reduce your risk of periodontal disease by eating a healthy diet, exercising, and keeping up with your regular dental visits.
Scaling and root planing is a nonsurgical dental procedure that removes plaque and tartar. Root planing smooths the rough spots on the tooth roots, and creates a clean surface for the gums to reattach to the tooth.
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