ovarian cancer in teenagers and young adults is a serious medical problem. It’s important to know what causes it and how to treat it.
Germ cell tumors
Generally, germ cell tumors are benign. However, there are rare types of germ cell tumors that are malignant, and if diagnosed in the early stages, they can be successfully treated with surgery.
These tumors form inside the reproductive cells of the ovary. They usually occur in young girls, who may experience a swollen belly.
Germ cell tumors can be diagnosed through a pelvic exam. They also may be detected through blood tests and ultrasound. The size and position of cancer can be determined by the tests, which also help doctors determine if the cancer is malignant. The treatment for germ cell ovarian cancer depends on the type of cancer and where the cancer is located.
Germ cell tumors may occur in the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, or the testes. They may also occur outside of the ovaries or testes, or in the brain or other parts of the body. They are cancerous and may cause pain.
These tumors are usually found in young women and can be treated with surgery. Surgery usually involves the removal of the tumor, but it may also involve chemotherapy. Some patients may also undergo radiation treatment to help kill cancer cells.
Germ cell tumors are not usually dangerous, but they can cause painful symptoms. They may appear as a lump in the abdomen, or they may press on organs. They may also cause vaginal bleeding after menopause.
The prognosis for germ cell cancer depends on the type of tumor, the location of cancer, and how much of the cancer is spread. The treatment for germ-cell ovarian tumors may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatment also depends on the age and medical tolerance of the patient.
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor
Generally, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are categorized into different subtypes. The classification of SLCTs is based on morphological and immunohistochemical features, which help in the differential diagnosis. However, there are still some uncertainties regarding SLCTs. It is important to establish a proper diagnosis.
A Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor is a tumor that contains both Sertoli and Leydig cells and has a lobular, retiform, or tubular morphology. In addition, it contains heterologous mesenchymal elements and can be either malignant or benign. It is a rare tumor and occurs in a wide age range, mainly in young women.
These tumors are usually seen in the ovaries and recur several years after initial diagnosis. They are also associated with hormonal disturbances. The best treatment is multi-modal. It usually involves surgery and chemotherapy. However, radical surgery may be needed in cases of malignant tumors. The treatment should be monitored to determine the best therapy.
Although there are many subtypes of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, the clinical and morphological differences are important to identify. In the ovary, the tumors typically have a tubular morphology and a conspicuous eosinophilic cytoplasm. However, they can also show striking vacuolated cytoplasm.
The testis is also a common site for these tumors. In the testis, the tumors have a lobular, tubular, or retiform morphology. They can range in size from 2 to 6 cm. They can also be solid or liquid.
These tumors are composed of small to large ‘blue nodules’ intersected by a stroma. They are thin-walled and contain viscid fluid. They may also contain plasma cells or plasma cells with inflammatory infiltration.
The primary imaging modality for adnexal masses is ultrasound. The tumor cells have moderate to abundant pale cytoplasm and are polygonal. They may also contain vacuoles, a sign of lipid accumulation.
Among the many types of gynecologic tumors, sarcoma botryoides and ovarian cancer in teenagers and young adults are rare. Sarcoma botryoides is an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. It usually occurs in the vagina. The onset of sarcoma botryoides occurs in the second decade of life.
Several studies have evaluated the incidence of ovarian rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Among these studies, the incidence is sporadic. The most common type of lower genital tract tumor in children is an endodermal sinus tumor.
The World Health Organization classification divides rhabdomyosarcoma into four histological subtypes: classic, dense, embryonal, and spindle cell. The classic variant is the most common form. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in the first decade of life.
Rhabdomyosarcomas in the genitourinary tract account for 3% of all soft tissue sarcomas in adults. The incidence of uterine sarcomas in children is three to nine percent. The incidence is higher in males. However, rhabdomyosarcomas of the vagina are rare in children.
Rhabdomyosarcoma in the cervix accounts for only 0.2% of all malignant tumors of the uterus. However, it is important to detect rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix in order to avoid fertility problems. The diagnostic approach is based on a histopathological examination of the vagina and cervix.
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma has a better prognosis than spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. However, the overall survival rate is poor. For this reason, aggressive surgical treatment is important.
Embryonal sarcomas should be tested for DICER1 mutations. This ribonuclease is important for the biogenesis of microRNAs. Approximately 20% of adenosarcomas have DICER1 alterations. This mutation may be associated with hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome.
Embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma should be examined clinically for enlarged lymph nodes. The COG-STS recommends a biopsy of these nodes if they appear clinically suspicious. This can also help determine the tumor type.
Large ovarian tumors
Surgical treatment of large ovarian tumors in teenagers and young adults is challenging. Optimal management depends on accurate diagnosis, assessment of tumor markers, and ovarian-sparing surgical techniques.
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate published cases of large ovarian masses in adolescents. Studies were excluded if they did not report large ovarian masses in adolescence, pathological confirmation was not provided, or the tumor was smaller than 10 cm. The ovarian neoplasms were grouped according to histology, size, and stage. The ovarian tumors were classified into benign and malignant lesions. The results of the systematic review will guide the professional community in making the correct diagnosis and implementing the most optimal treatment.
The percentage of tumors diagnosed at a distant stage was higher in adolescents than in adults. Among adolescents, serous carcinomas accounted for 57% of the carcinomas. In adults, mucinous carcinomas accounted for 36%. There was no significant correlation between the size of the tumor and its malignant nature.
The incidence rates of ovarian cancer were calculated for females in the U.S. between 1970 and 1995. Rates are per million females. The rates for white females were near twice those for black women.
The ovarian tumors were compared by age, race, and histology. Rates for ovarian cancer was higher in the Asian/Pacific Islander population. In white adolescents and young adults, rates for carcinomas were nearly double that for black women. The young adults’ age group represents the transitional period in the histologic distribution of ovarian tumors.
A total of 521 patients with ovarian masses were studied. Among these, 382 (73.3%) had benign neoplasms. In addition, 47 (9%) of these had malignant neoplasms. These tumors were invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinomas.
Various forms of ovarian cancer can occur in young females. The most common form is a germ cell tumor. Other forms are epithelial and stromal tumors. The tumors can be diagnosed by physical examination, imaging studies, and pelvic exams.
The earliest symptom of ovarian germ cell tumors is abdominal pain. Other symptoms may include weight loss, constipation, and irregular periods.
There are many different types of ovarian tumors, and the symptoms and location of the tumors vary. Some can be asymptomatic and develop only later in the illness’s course.
There are several treatments available for ovarian cancer. Some are standard, while others are being tested in clinical trials. The cost of treatment depends on the type of insurance the patient has and the severity of the tumor.
Treatment of ovarian cancer in teenagers and young adults is usually done by a gynecologist. The goal of management is to alleviate symptoms, preserve ovarian function, and promote an excellent outcome.
A gynecologist can diagnose ovarian tumors and may prescribe treatment, including surgery. Patients may also enter clinical trials during or after cancer treatment to study new therapies.
Other treatments include targeted immunotherapy. This involves taking cancer cells and testing them for mutations, which may indicate whether a patient has cancer or a normal cell type.
Most ovarian tumors in teenagers and young adults are benign. However, a small percentage of them are malignant.
Treatment of ovarian cancer in teens and young adults may involve surgery or chemotherapy. Younger patients are usually treated with chemotherapy, while older ones are treated with surgery. A surgeon may also remove part of the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
If your teen has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, they may need to be referred to a genetic counselor. A genetic counselor can help you and your teen decide on treatment methods.
Health A to Z. (n.d.). HSE.ie. https://www2.hse.ie/az/
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
Directory Health Topics. (n.d.). https://www.healthline.com/directory/topics
Health A-Z. (2022, April 26). Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/health-a-z-4014770
Harvard Health. (2015, November 17). Health A to Z. https://www.health.harvard.edu/health-a-to-z
Health Conditions A-Z Sitemap. (n.d.). EverydayHealth.com. https://www.everydayhealth.com/conditions/