Among the various types of cancers that are found in children, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one that is very common. However, it is important for parents to understand how to recognize and treat this type of cancer. This article discusses the symptoms, treatment options, and types of chemotherapy and radiotherapy used for this disease.
Symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children vary from child to child. Children with the disease may have enlarged lymph nodes and shortness of breath. Other symptoms of the disease include fever, a cough, and abdominal pain. It is important to get prompt medical attention for children with this disease.
The underlying cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown. However, it is known that children with weakened immune systems are at increased risk of developing the disease. Children are also at risk for developing lymphomas if they have had an infection or have a deficiency of certain proteins in their immune system. Research is underway to determine what these proteins are and how they play a role in the development of lymphomas.
Children with lymphomas usually respond to treatment. Treatment depends on the type of lymphoma and may include chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may be administered orally or intravenously. Chemotherapy may also cause side effects. Survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma are at risk for developing a second malignancy.
Children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma may be diagnosed through a lumbar puncture or bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. During this procedure, a hollow needle is inserted into the abnormal lymph node and a sample of tissue is removed for testing. The sample is then reviewed by a hematopathologist. The hematopathologist is a doctor specializing in cancers of the blood.
Children with lymphomas may experience problems with their skin, eyes, and lungs. They may also experience symptoms like headache, nausea, facial numbness, and trouble talking. A child with lymphoma may also have symptoms like shortness of breath or chest pain. These symptoms may occur due to infections, other medical conditions, or cancer itself.
The symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma can be different for children depending on the location of cancer. For instance, lymphoma that is present in the bone may cause pain, a feeling of fullness after a small meal, and generalized bone pain. In addition, lymphoma that is present in an abdominal area may cause pain, swelling, and obstruction of the bowels. Symptoms of non-Hodgkin disease in children may also include fever and shortness of breath.
During treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children, chemotherapy is used to help kill the cancer cells. The chemotherapy is usually given in cycles over several weeks or months. Each cycle is followed by a period of rest.
The treatment plan will depend on your child’s overall health, the stage of the disease, and your family’s preferences. It may also include radiation therapy and/or palliative care.
A multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists will help you plan the best treatment plan for your child. They will use a number of tests to determine how well the child is responding to the chemotherapy. They will also discuss the possible side effects of the treatment, and help you make the best decision for your child.
If your child is suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, it is important that you understand the different treatment options available to him. The treatments vary depending on the stage of the disease, the type of lymphoma, and your family’s preferences.
During treatment, your child will receive drugs by mouth. These may be tablets, capsules, or syrup. Some children will be given a portacath, a small tube that is put in the child’s body under general anesthetic. The portacath stays in place for the entire treatment period.
In addition to chemotherapy, some children with lymphoma will also receive radiation therapy. This treatment is usually given as an outpatient procedure. The X-rays are given at the lowest dose possible to reduce the risk of any late effects.
The side effects of treatment can vary depending on the type of lymphoma. Chemotherapy drugs can affect the blood cells, kidneys, heart, and nervous system. These side effects are serious and may require a delay in treatment.
The effects of chemotherapy on your child’s fertility may also be an issue. Some medications can cause serious nerve damage and may increase your child’s risk of developing leukemias later in life.
Other side effects of treatment may include nausea and vomiting. These are sometimes treated with drugs that reduce nausea and vomiting. The child may also receive a social worker, who can help you and your child cope with the emotional effects of the disease.
Depending on the type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a patient may need to undergo various types of treatment. Treatment options are based on the type and stage of the disease, the patient’s overall health, and the family’s preferences.
Treatment may also include surgery. Surgery can be used to remove as much of the tumor as possible. In addition to surgery, a patient may need to receive chemotherapy. The chemotherapy may be given alone or in combination with other drugs. The type of chemotherapy and the type of drugs will depend on the child’s medical history, overall health, and the risk of recurrence.
Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma can spread to other parts of the body. Treatment may involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation. Each type of treatment has its own side effects. Parents should discuss the treatment options with their child’s doctor. The patient may also be enrolled in clinical trials to learn more about new treatments.
If treatment for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma does not result in remission, the child may need to undergo further testing. Tests include x-rays and scans, which can be used to detect the growth of cancer cells. A pathologist can determine if the cancer cells are present by performing a biopsy. During a biopsy, the doctor will remove a sample of tissue from the lymph nodes.
During chemotherapy, high doses of chemotherapy are given to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can also affect healthy cells.
Children who have stage IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma may need to receive additional treatment, such as radiation therapy. This type of therapy uses a machine outside of the body to send high-energy x-rays toward the area of the body where the cancer is. X-rays are also used to detect and treat childhood cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Childhood non-Hodgkin Lymphoma can have a high remission rate. However, recurrence is common. Recurrences are also known as recurrent cancer. A child who has recurrent cancer may have the cancer return in the same place it was first diagnosed, or in a different location.
Treatment for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is usually done by a pediatric oncologist. This type of doctor specializes in childhood cancer and works with other specialists to help patients receive the best treatment possible.
Treatment for older teens
Despite the high rate of remission, non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment for older teens can have some side effects. These can be long-term or short-term, depending on how the cancer is treated. These can include problems with breathing and stomach pain.
Treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in young people can be a series of cycles of chemotherapy. Some young people may stay in the hospital for some of the treatment. They may also undergo outpatient treatment. The treatment plan is determined by the specialist and the multidisciplinary team. They will consider the patient’s age, general health, and any other factors.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually begins in the white blood cells of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s immune system. The lymphatic system filters out harmful substances and collects lymph from different parts of the body.
A lymph node is a small lymphatic gland that filters lymph. The lymph nodes are located in the groin, abdomen, armpit, and pelvis. Some lymph nodes may also be located deeper inside the body. A lymph node can grow very quickly. A swollen lymph node may be painful, but it’s usually only temporary. Swollen lymph nodes will usually go away after about two to three weeks.
There are also several tests that can be performed to determine the presence of lymphoma in the body. These tests include ultrasound, x-ray, and physical examination. These tests will examine the lymphatic system and the body’s internal organs. An x-ray will also help locate the best biopsy site.
A biopsy is a procedure that removes the tissue or cells of a tumor. The doctor will use a special tool to remove the tissue. The samples are then examined under a microscope. The pathologist will check the samples for cancer cells. The samples may be sent to a laboratory for special tests. The results help to identify the type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Young people with lymphoma are usually treated in a specialist hospital. These hospitals have all the necessary facilities and a multidisciplinary team. They will work with the patient to decide what treatment is necessary at each stage. They will also discuss possible side effects.
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