Types of Insulin For Diabetes
Several types of insulin are available for treating diabetes. These types include short-acting insulin, long-acting insulin, and pen needles for injections.
Types of insulin
Depending on how you manage your blood sugar, you may need to use different types of insulin. The main purpose of insulin is to allow cells in the body to absorb glucose as energy. It is also used to prevent dangerous glucose levels in the blood.
Insulin is produced by the pancreas, which is part of the Islets of Langerhans. The beta cells within the pancreas release insulin with each meal.
Different types of insulin act differently in the body. In general, short-acting insulin is faster work than long-acting insulin. Long-acting insulin is usually taken two or three times a day before meals. This type of insulin is also used with short-acting insulin to provide additional coverage.
Some types of insulin are genetically engineered. Others are derived from the animal pancreas.
The best way to determine which type of insulin is right for you is to ask your healthcare provider. He or she may recommend a mix of insulins. This can help simplify your dosages.
A mix of insulins is also called a premix. However, this may limit the flexibility of your doses.
Other types of insulin are called analogs. These mimic human insulin but have a different chemical structure. The chemical structure of insulin can be affected by stress, illness, diet, and the type of injection site.
There are also some insulins that look clear. However, to be sure, you should check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
Short-acting vs long-acting insulin
Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared short-acting insulin analogs to regular human insulin for improving glucose control. They found that short-acting insulin analogs were associated with less hypoglycemia, a higher rate of treatment compliance, and lower postprandial glucose levels. However, there was no significant difference in the overall DTSQ score.
In addition, the results of the studies on the risk-benefit ratio of short-acting insulin analogs have not yet been confirmed. The quality of the evidence used for the studies was assessed through the GRADEpro framework.
The short-acting insulin analogs achieved higher peak plasma concentrations than regular insulin. This resulted in faster absorption, faster onset of action, and better postprandial glucose control. In addition, they also had less nocturnal hypoglycemia and decreased total hypoglycemia.
The results of the RCTs on the risk-benefit ratio of short-acting analogs were consistent with the findings from the Cochrane Library. The quality of the studies was assessed through the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Assessment (RACA) and GRADEpro.
The pharmacokinetics of short-acting insulin analogs are expected to result in a faster onset of action and better postprandial glucose control. It is expected that better postprandial glucose control will lead to lower postprandial A1C levels and fewer hypoglycemic episodes.
The results of the studies on the risk-benefit of short-acting insulin analogs also showed that the studies had a relatively low risk of bias. However, the studies were conducted on a smaller sample size, which contributed to the lack of statistical power.
Levemir vs Humulin
Whether you need Levemir or Humulin R for diabetes, you should make sure that you take the drugs according to your doctor’s directions. Both insulins are used to help maintain a steady level of insulin in the body. However, Levemir has a slightly different profile than Humulin R.
Levemir has been approved to help lower blood sugar in adults and children with type 2 diabetes. It is typically administered once or twice a day. It can be injected subcutaneously (under the skin) or in the abdomen.
Levemir is considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, if you are planning on becoming pregnant, you should talk to your doctor about your options.
Taking Levemir can cause mild weight gain. However, weight gain is less than when taking Humulin R.
Levemir is injected subcutaneously (under the skin) in the upper arm or abdomen. It is injected at least one hour after you eat. If you have a lot of fluid in your body, Levemir can cause swelling of the ankles and feet.
Levemir may interact with certain medications. Some of these include oral antidiabetic medications, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and diuretics. It is also possible to interact with fibrates, sulfonamide antibiotics, and pramlintide acetate.
Levemir is available as a vial or FlexTouch pen. You can use the FlexTouch pen, which is a pump, to inject Levemir. You can also use a pen to inject Levemir if you don’t have a pump. It is best to avoid using the FlexTouch pen if your skin is thick or damaged. If you have problems with your skin, ask your doctor to change your injection site. This is important to reduce the risk of skin scarring and thickening.
Several metabolic pathways have been linked to insulin and endothelial toxicity. These include oxidative stress, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and inflammation. The inflammatory mediator TNF-a promotes impaired endothelial function in obese subjects.
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in morbidly obese patients with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been identified as a determinant factor in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In addition, insulin-stimulated NO production from endothelium has been studied. Insulin resistance also contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation and elevated circulating inflammatory markers.
Insulin resistance has been linked to obesity and obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance has been studied extensively. Insulin resistance is a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Acute insulin resistance has been associated with atherosclerosis and microvessel disease.
Insulin resistance also contributes to endothelial dysfunction. The increased production of ROS and decreased NO bioavailability lead to endothelial dysfunction. Insulin resistance also induces oxidative stress. The oxidant peroxynitrites inactivate the endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and contribute to endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin was measured by wire myograph. The presence of IR also contributed to endothelial dysfunction.
Endothelial dysfunction is a well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors. It is also a key event in the development of CVD. In addition to increased ROS generation, endothelial dysfunction also contributes to inflammation. It may explain the differences in vascular outcomes between healthy and unhealthy morbid obese populations.
Besides being a predisposing factor for Type 2 diabetes, hyperinsulinemia may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). There are numerous studies that link the two conditions.
Hyperinsulinemia is caused by insulin resistance. This means that the body has become resistant to the insulin produced by the pancreas. In turn, the pancreas produces more insulin than is necessary to maintain blood sugar levels in the normal range. This is a temporary condition that can be improved by losing weight, exercising, and a healthy diet.
Insulin resistance is also associated with hypertension. This is an important factor in diabetes, as it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, diabetes is associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure.
Hyperinsulinemia is linked to hyperglycemia, which is also associated with cardiovascular disease. This relationship has been studied in mice. In one study, mice were fed a HF1 diet, which normalized plasma glucose. However, in another study, mice were fed an HF2 diet, which led to a rise in plasma glucose.
Insulin is also associated with higher rates of DNA synthesis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, it is associated with the development of advanced glycation end-products. These compounds are formed through complex non-enzymatic chemical reactions and stimulate the generation of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. The effects of these substances may be responsible for many diabetic complications.
In addition, there is evidence that hyperinsulinemia may also be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This is based on the fact that insulin stimulates the production of nitric oxide by endothelial cells. In addition, hyperglycemia has been linked to other inflammatory markers.
Pen needles for insulin injections
Whether you need to administer insulin by pen or by injection, the proper technique is essential. Luckily, pen needles are simple to use. They are also less intimidating than the traditional syringe. They also make it easier to administer insulin on the go.
The best way to choose the right pen needle is to talk with your healthcare provider. They can advise you on the best length and gauge for your specific needs. You may also want to consider your body type and your comorbid conditions.
If you are obese or have comorbid conditions that make you physically disabled, you may want to consider a longer needle. This can prevent the needle from leaking out of your skin.
The length of your needle can also affect the amount of pain you experience when injecting insulin. This is why it is important to consider your comorbid conditions when choosing a pen needle.
The best way to dispose of your used pen needle is to place it in an appropriate sharps container. You can find these online or in a local pharmacy. You should also never throw your used needle in the trash or in the garbage bin. This can cause other people to get blood-borne diseases and infections.
One way to prevent bleeding is to place a cotton ball on your skin before injecting. It may also help to have a bandage to wrap around the area to stop the bleeding.
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