Types of Immunotherapy
Biological therapy is the medical science that uses the body’s own immune system to combat disease. There are two main types of immunotherapy, which are known as activation immunotherapy and suppression immunotherapy.
Oncolytic virus therapy
Unlike traditional chemotherapy or radiation therapy, oncolytic virus therapy is a targeted cancer treatment that involves the use of genetically engineered viruses to target cancer cells. The viruses replicate within tumor cells and cause the death of the cancer cells. This type of treatment has been found to increase the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. It is a new form of cancer immunotherapy.
OVs are replicated within cancer cells and release proteins that cause the immune system to target the cancer cells. The viruses can be engineered to express therapeutic genes or attenuating genes. These viral strains can also be engineered to express reporter genes that allow for noninvasive monitoring of virotherapy.
Genetic engineering allows the designer to create viruses with highly tumor-selective killing activities. These viruses are able to infect and replicate in cancer cells by a thymidine kinase enzyme. This enzyme is found in some viruses and is responsible for DNA synthesis.
In order to achieve a high level of tumor selectiveness, the viral genome needs to be altered structurally to attract the immune system to the tumor. In addition, dosing strategies need to be developed so that the virus is delivered systemically.
Oncolytic adenoviruses have been studied for over 20 years. They are non-enveloped viruses with long fiber knobs on their capsid vertex. They can infect almost all cell types, including hematologic tumors. They have been used in a variety of clinical trials. They have been shown to be effective in several cancer types. They have been shown to activate T-cells by co-stimulation. Moreover, they may enhance the presentation of viral antigens after oncolysis.
Other oncolytic viruses are being developed. One of these is NTX-010, which is being developed for small-cell lung cancer. Another is VCN-01, which expresses soluble hyaluronidase.
Currently, cancer immunotherapy relies on the use of cytokines to promote the generation of anti-tumor T cells. Cytokines are secreted proteins that stimulate the production and function of T cells and natural killer cells. Cytokines also play an important role in cancer immunosurveillance, the induction of active immune responses against tumors.
Cytokines are produced by cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Cytokines are produced in response to microbes and tumor antigens. Cytokines are also produced by phagocytic cells in response to antigenic stimulation. Cytokines are produced by activated macrophages, T cells, and NK cells. The activity of cytokines is regulated by the pattern of cytokine receptor expression. Several studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of cytokines. Cytokines are also used in several aspects of dendritic cell-based vaccination strategies.
The common g-chain cytokine family consists of six members: IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8. Cytokines are categorized into two categories: cytokines with dual functions and those with a single function. Cytokines with dual functions are potent activators of the T effector compartment and regulatory T cell compartment. IL-2 and IL-4 are cytokines that have been used as immunotherapeutic agents.
Cytokines also play an important role as adjuvants to cancer therapies. In addition to stimulating the immune cells, cytokines stimulate stromal cells at the tumor site. This creates a highly controlled environment that promotes the optimal development of anti-tumor T cells.
Several cytokines are already in clinical trials for advanced cancer. IL-2 has been used in early-phase clinical trials, and high-dose IL-2 bolus has been approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This cytokine has also been used to produce durable complete responses in a subset of metastatic melanoma patients. Other cytokines have entered clinical trials as well, including IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and GM-CSF.
Vaccines for immunotherapy target cancer cells by targeting an antigen or antigens found on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be RNA or pure proteins. These antigens can be either large or small. They may also be pathogens that have been rendered harmless by chemical or heat treatment. Vaccines for immunotherapy are intended to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
Various studies have shown the safety and bioactivity of vaccines for immunotherapy. Some of these studies have been conducted on breast cancer, and other studies have been performed on brain tumors. These studies have shown that vaccines can be effective in preventing cancer, but they have not been effective in treating cancer. Several studies are currently underway to assess the effect of cancer vaccines in clinical practice.
Some vaccines for immunotherapy are made using virus vectors. Other vaccines are made from whole cancer cells. In some vaccines, the cancer cells are modified and reintroduced into the patient through a vein. This process is called fusion cell vaccination. Various studies have shown that fusion cell vaccination induces an immunological response.
Many protein-based cancer vaccines are targeted at a single antigen that is associated with a small number of MHC class II molecules. These vaccines are often administered in combination with an adjuvant to enhance their effect.
Two studies have been conducted to evaluate MUC-1-based vaccines. In one study, a monoclonal antibody, containing an idiotypic determinant, was administered to mice and induced MUC-1-specific T-cell immunity. In the other study, a MUC-1 tandem repeat peptide-KLH conjugate was given with an immunologic adjuvant, QS-21. The conjugate induced antigen-specific antibody titers and NK-dependent cytotoxicity.
Studies are being conducted to develop treatment vaccines for colorectal cancer. These vaccines tell the immune system to attack specific antigens thought to cause colorectal cancer. These antigens include MUC1 and NY-ESO-1.
Using non-specific immunotherapy, the immune system is stimulated to respond to tumor cells. This type of therapy is used to fight cancer, and can also be used to treat other diseases. Some of the immunoregulatory substances used include cytokines, interleukins, and enzyme inhibitors.
Non-specific immunotherapy has been around for decades and is a treatment method that involves activating the immune system. It uses cytokines to accentuate the ability of the immune system to attack cancer cells. It can be used in conjunction with cytotoxic therapy or chemotherapy.
Cytokines play a crucial role in the communication of the immune system and in signaling the immune cells. These molecules are produced by the immune system cells and play a critical role in the immune response.
Non-specific immunotherapy can be used as a treatment for some cancers, including melanoma, kidney cancer, skin cancer, and some types of leukemia. In many cases, interleukin 2 is used. It is also used to treat some forms of bone marrow cancer.
There are several types of immunotherapies, including active non-specific immunotherapy, passive immunotherapy, and immunomodulatory cytokines. Active non-specific immunotherapy aims to stimulate the immune system in a more general way, whereas passive immunotherapy aims to directly attack cancer cells.
Some immunotherapies are available in the clinic, but they are not widely successful. However, preliminary trials show that these therapies have the potential to bolster the anti-tumor immune response. These therapies include the adoptive transfer of immune cells, in vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells, and reversal of immunosuppression.
The advantages of antigen-specific immunotherapy include the ability to target specific tumor antigens. However, this strategy has some disadvantages. These disadvantages include the need to identify and target the cancer cells and a short duration of treatment.
Depending on your cancer type, immunotherapy can cause side effects. Some of these are mild while others may be serious. The best way to manage the side effects is to recognize them early.
The newest drugs that stimulate your immune system have been found to have dramatic effects on certain cancers. As a result, researchers are looking for ways to boost your immune system to fight your cancer.
However, it is important to understand that immunotherapy side effects vary depending on the type of cancer, the dose, and the patient’s body chemistry. Some side effects are mild and require no treatment. Others may be more serious and need to be monitored more closely.
Immunotherapy side effects can include pain, swelling, or inflammation of the skin. These effects are triggered by the immune system’s overreaction to healthy tissue. These effects can also occur in patients with autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. If you experience an immune-related side effect, you should tell your doctor immediately.
Immunotherapy side effects can also occur in people with other conditions, including chronic heart failure, lung disease, and diabetes. These side effects can lead to complications and can even worsen the condition.
A small percentage of patients may experience more serious side effects. Some examples of immune-related adverse events include diarrhea, pneumonia, and colitis. These symptoms can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
Most patients experience only mild side effects. The best way to minimize the risk is to report all symptoms to your doctor. Some of these side effects may require additional medications.
A good oncology team can help you manage the side effects of immunotherapy. Many of these side effects are caused by a single drug or a combination of drugs.
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