Using a Breath Antigen Test to Detect Helicobacter Pylori Infection
Originally known as Campylobacter pylori, this gram-negative spiral bacterium has a very specific shape that is thought to penetrate the mucoid lining of the stomach. This is also believed to establish an infection.
Stool antigen test
Using a stool antigen test to detect Helicobacter pylori infection is an effective diagnostic tool. Unlike conventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, stool tests are non-invasive and quick. They are also useful for monitoring therapy effectiveness.
Several studies have evaluated the performance of stool tests for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a hospital-based deviation cohort. The results suggest that stool tests have good sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. However, there is limited data regarding stool tests in adults. A stool antigen test in children has been studied in Brazil. Compared to a stool polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, a stool antigen test is cheaper and provides better sensitivity. However, stool tests are not available at all medical centers.
A stool antigen test is based on an enzyme immunoassay. This test is less expensive than a stool polymerase chain reaction test (CPCT). The stool antigen test can be performed at home. This test is considered the front-runner for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection.
An asymptomatic pediatric population of 60 children with a mean age of 7.2 years was evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection using the rapid step HpSA test by lateral flow immunoassay. The test uses tagged carbon molecules in a solution that is swallowed by the patient.
The results of the study show that a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 87.5% were achieved by the stool antigen test. However, the test had six false-positive results. One of the false-positive results came from a patient who had H. pylori-positive relatives who shared the bathroom.
There is still a need to develop a better monoclonal stool immunoassay to increase its utility. The test does not distinguish between an active and past infection. There are also concerns about external contamination. There is a possibility of false-negative results due to low colonization of the bacteria.
A rapid lateral flow immunoassay provides high specificity and good sensitivity. It is suitable for small laboratories without the equipment to perform the test. However, it is not suitable for adults.
The rapid stool antigen test had six false-positive results. In addition, it showed a 95% confidence interval of 75.7 to 95.3%. Moreover, there was a positive likelihood ratio of 1.64.
Urea breath test
During the H Pylori breath test, you breathe into a bag and exhale. The lab will collect your breath, then analyze it and send it back to you. The results are usually available within two days.
The test is non-invasive and painless. You can order the test online. You will have to fast for at least an hour before the test. You should not take antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, and Pepto-Bismol within two weeks of the test. The test may be repeated after you have finished treatment.
The test also involves swallowing a capsule containing urea. The urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonia. The higher the carbon dioxide level, the higher the likelihood of H. Pylori infection.
The urea breath test is an inexpensive and fast test that detects the presence of H. Pylori bacteria in the stomach. It is a non-invasive test that can be done at home. The test has a 95% sensitivity, which means that it is highly accurate.
The test can also be performed on children. If you are pregnant, tell your doctor. The test may not be available at all medical centers. You should also let the doctor know if you are allergic to bismuth preparations or oral bismuth subsalicylate. Some preparations can cause false negative results.
You may have to drink a special solution to complete the test. It is a lemon-flavored liquid. It is best not to drink or eat any food or drink for an hour before the test. You should also stop taking over-the-counter proton pump inhibitors.
You can order the H Pylori breath test online. The test is FDA-approved. You can also purchase it from Quest Diagnostics. The test is not available at all lab locations.
The test takes about 20-30 minutes. You can continue normal activities after the test. You will have to wait 15 minutes before giving a second breath sample. The test is safe for children and can be performed in the comfort of your own home. You can also order a stool test, but it may be more expensive. You can order the test online, or you can call the lab.
Almost half the world’s population is infected with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. This bacteria is responsible for most stomach ulcers. It can also cause chronic gastritis. If left untreated, it can lead to gastric cancer. It is a common infection, which is usually acquired in childhood.
A blood test can be performed to check for antibodies in the body. These antibodies are proteins that are made by the body’s immune system. These antibodies can help to detect substances that can be harmful to the body. However, they cannot distinguish between past infections and current active infections.
Other tests include fecal antigen tests and 13C-urea breath tests. These tests are used to help diagnose the infection and decide on treatment. However, the effectiveness of the tests can be affected by factors such as patient compliance, antibiotic resistance, and CYP enzyme activity.
Another type of test involves the removal of a small piece of tissue from the stomach lining. This is then examined by a pathologist. The pathologist will look for the presence of the bacteria and other symptoms of the disease. The test can be performed by an outpatient clinic or a hospital.
In certain cases, a doctor may order an endoscopy to see what is going on inside your stomach. The endoscopy procedure involves snaking a tube with a camera through your stomach and into the small intestine. It is considered a very accurate test. However, the test has some side effects.
If you have peptic ulcers, you may have an endoscopy performed. This is a test that is performed in the hospital. It can help to diagnose the ulcer and treat it. It can also be used to check for bleeding.
If you are taking bismuth preparations or proton pump inhibitors, you should not take these medicines for at least two weeks before the test. This will help to minimize the effects of these preparations on your test results.
You should make an appointment to get your test done. In many cases, the test will be covered by insurance. The test can take a few weeks to complete.
During the past several years, the treatment of H. pylori infection has become increasingly difficult due to antibiotic resistance. Consequently, the cure rate of the infection is not as high as expected. In fact, it is lower than the cure rates for other serious bacterial infections.
As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 classified H. pylori as a high-priority pathogen. This designation is based on the fact that the infection can cause gastrointestinal diseases. It can also lead to peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.
Eradication therapy should be used when possible. Eradication therapy involves using higher doses of antibiotics for a period of 14 days. If the infection is resistant to antibiotics, then empiric use of eradication therapies should be used. This approach may be acceptable if the patient is at risk of infection or is taking NSAIDs.
The most common treatment for H. pylori is a 14-day course of four antibiotics. The antibiotics used may include clarithromycin, metronidazole, or amoxicillin.
Before eradication therapy, the health care provider will do a test to determine the presence of the infection. The test can be performed using a stool sample or by upper endoscopy. The test will look for proteins that are associated with H. pylori infection. It is important to note that the accuracy of the test is compromised when using antibiotics.
The results of the test may be used to adjust the treatment regimen. It is recommended to repeat the test at least four weeks after completing treatment. The result will determine the type of antibiotic to be used.
A treatment plan should be personalized to the individual patient. It should be based on the patient’s antibiotic usage, the level of resistance in the patient’s area, and the resistance rates of the patient’s local strains. The treatment should also be based on the patient’s allergies.
Some patients may experience side effects, such as abdominal pain, dizziness, vomiting, and rash. In addition, they may not be able to comply with the treatment regimen. The health care provider may refer the patient to a gastroenterologist for further treatment.
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