Bone Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
Whether you’ve been told you have bone cancer or are a member of the family that has suffered from this disease, it’s important to understand what you can do to help prevent this illness from progressing. This article gives you a brief overview of some of the main causes, symptoms, and treatments of bone cancer.
Approximately one in five adults in the United States will be diagnosed with multiple myeloma in their lifetime. The incidence of the disease is slightly higher among men than women. It is also more common in African-Americans than Caucasians. The average age of diagnosis is 66 years.
Symptoms of multiple myeloma and bone cancer include bone pain, bone destruction, and lowered platelets. In some cases, patients also develop lupus. There is also an increased risk of infections.
Bone cancer and myeloma are often treated with a combination of drugs. For example, bisphosphonate drugs help prevent bone weakness caused by myeloma cells. Steroids can also be given to reduce inflammation and relieve bone pain. These drugs are often given with chemotherapy.
A bone marrow biopsy is often used to identify myeloma cells in the bone. This is done by removing a small sample of bone marrow using a thin needle. It is typically done with local anesthesia.
Stem cell transplant is often used as an initial intervention in multiple myeloma. The stem cells are either from the patient or from a donor. These transplants have shown promise for preventing relapse. They may take several months to complete.
Generally speaking, osteosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in bone cells. This cancer may spread to other parts of the body. It is caused by a mutation in the DNA inside the bone cells. This mutation may be caused by genetics or can occur after birth.
The most common type of osteosarcoma occurs in children and teenagers. It usually develops in long bones, particularly those near the knee. Symptoms include pain in the bone and an unexplained limp.
Most patients are treated with chemotherapy. These drugs kill cancer cells. They are usually given before surgery. In some cases, radiation is used. This may be particularly helpful in areas where surgery is not possible. It may also be used to kill cancer cells after surgery.
Another type of osteosarcoma, called chondrosarcoma, is caused by cartilage cells. Chondrosarcoma is rarely found in adults under age 20. The cells of chondrosarcoma form irregular, diseased bones. This type of osteosarcoma is often associated with a poorer prognosis.
Osteosarcoma can be treated with radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. Surgery may be needed to remove the tumor or to treat symptoms. A leg amputation is a difficult procedure and may take time to learn to use the artificial limb.
chondrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that starts in cartilage cells. These cells are found in joints, tendons, ligaments, and bones.
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage neoplasms that can permeate into the marrow space and into the cortical bone. They can be very difficult to detect at an early stage. Typically, chondrosarcomas are slow-growing. They do not respond well to other cancer treatments.
Chondrosarcomas can be diagnosed using a tissue biopsy. This is a critical step in the diagnosis process. Once the tumor is confirmed, the treatment process begins.
The goal of treatment is to remove the tumor. Surgery is the most common treatment for chondrosarcoma. After surgery, chemotherapy is often used. Chemotherapy is given to slow the growth of the tumor and to help prevent metastasis.
For more advanced tumors, radiation therapy is often used. The goal is to destroy the cancer cells while leaving the healthy tissue in place. Some treatment options may also be available as clinical trials.
Treatment for chondrosarcoma depends on the size, location, and grade of the tumor. Treatments can also include rehabilitation and coping strategies. Typically, patients will undergo regular check-ups and may need to travel to a specialist hospital to be treated.
Known as osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma of bone is a high-grade, aggressive tumor. It affects primarily children, but it can also affect adults. Most cases are thought to be caused by random genetic changes. However, there is some evidence that abnormal proteins may influence Ewing’s sarcoma.
This type of tumor usually occurs in the femur, the lower part of the leg. The symptoms are pain and swelling. The bone may become weakened and break. Cancer may also spread to other parts of the body.
Ewing’s sarcoma can be diagnosed by a biopsy, which is a procedure that removes a small piece of bone or marrow. The sample is examined under a microscope. The cells may appear round or flat, and blue. The biopsy is done under general anesthesia.
Surgery may also be performed to remove the tumor. Bone grafts may be used to reconstruct the bone. Artificial joints may also be used to restore joint function.
Chemotherapy is also an option for patients with Ewing’s sarcoma. Chemotherapy can be used alone or in conjunction with radiation. Chemotherapy involves high doses of drugs that kill cancer cells. Some chemotherapy drugs used in the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma include doxorubicin, vincristine, and ifosfamide.
X-rays and CT scans
X-rays and CT scans for bone cancer can detect cancerous growths and show other problems. They can also help you determine the best treatment for your condition. They are beneficial, but they can also be dangerous.
X-rays and CT scans are both forms of radiation. Doctors have used them to diagnose pneumonia, broken bones, and cancer.
X-rays and CTs for bone cancer are usually used by a specialist. The specialist will have a look at your body and ask about previous medical problems. They will also ask about bone pain. They may perform a bone marrow biopsy to see if you have bone cancer.
CT scans are a more powerful form of x-rays, and they can create detailed images of almost your entire body. They are often used to look for tumors and blood clots. They are especially helpful for imaging bone fractures. They can also look for internal bleeding and other problems.
CT scans are usually more expensive than x-rays. They may not be available in smaller hospitals. They can also be used to check for lung cancer.
Some CT scans require the use of contrast material, which can make certain parts of the body show up better. This is a type of special dye that travels through your bloodstream and focuses on certain areas of your body.
During a bone cancer biopsy, a doctor uses a needle to remove a small portion of bone tissue. This sample is sent to a laboratory for further testing. It is used to determine the presence of cancer, and to identify new targets for treatment. It is also used to determine whether cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body.
A bone cancer biopsy is an important part of the diagnosis process. It can help doctors confirm the diagnosis of metastatic bone cancer in patients with known primary neoplasms.
The biopsy is typically performed under local anesthesia, though a general anesthetic is sometimes required. The procedure involves making a small incision in the skin over the affected bone and then drilling a small hole in the bone. X-rays can help guide the needle into the bone.
The biopsy might be done in the doctor’s office, hospital, or at home. It should be performed by a doctor who specializes in bone tumors.
The most common type of bone cancer biopsy is a core needle biopsy. A needle is inserted into the hip bone, and the core is pierced. Then, pressure is applied to the area to stop bleeding.
Depending on the stage and type of bone cancer, treatment will vary. A patient’s age and general health also affect treatment options. A multidisciplinary team of medical specialists will recommend the most effective treatment for the patient.
The primary goal of treatment is to remove as much cancer as possible. Surgeons often use special surgical techniques to minimize the removal of healthy tissue. Occasionally, a patient will need a bone graft to replace the affected bone.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that helps to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy works by traveling through the bloodstream and destroying cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used on its own or in combination with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is effective against some bone cancers, but it does not work against other types.
Surgery is also a treatment option for bone cancer. If bone cancer has spread to other parts of the body, surgery may be used to remove the tumors. Surgery may also be used to help strengthen bones that are weak from cancer.
Cancer treatment can have side effects, including hair loss, fatigue, nausea, and mouth sores. These effects can last for months or years, depending on the treatment.
Health A to Z. (n.d.). HSE.ie. https://www2.hse.ie/az/
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
Directory Health Topics. (n.d.). https://www.healthline.com/directory/topics
Health A-Z. (2022, April 26). Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/health-a-z-4014770
Harvard Health. (2015, November 17). Health A to Z. https://www.health.harvard.edu/health-a-to-z
Health Conditions A-Z Sitemap. (n.d.). EverydayHealth.com. https://www.everydayhealth.com/conditions/